Roberto Zanata MIT 07

DRAFT DRAUGHT, di roberto zanata

Chi si trova a operare con la tecnica al fine della produzione di opere d’arte non potrà fare a meno di chiedersi com’è che la tecnica diventi arte o che l’arte si riveli attraverso la tecnica. Eppure per chi si cimenta con lo studio e l’applicazione della tecnica con fini artistici è paradossalmente il concetto artistico a creare i maggiori problemi perché ci si raccapezza solo a fatica nelle definizioni dell’arte del nostro tempo e a colui che si riconosce come artista poco importa probabilmente di essere inquadrato ora in questa ora in quell’altra definizione. L’artista ha già il suo bel da fare nel cercare di plasmare il suo oggetto d’indagine e nessuna categoria dei tipi potrebbe soddisfarlo. L’artista consapevolmente o no rimane colui che è in grado con il suo operare di sollevare la problematicità dell’arte a lui contemporanea. Questo è anche il caso dell’artista alle prese con la tecnologia che il XXI secolo gli mette a disposizione. Weibel, artista e teorico delle nuove tecnologie applicate all’arte, riprendendo una metafora di Paul Klee, scrive: “L’arte è come un albero con molti rami. Ogni ramo segue la propria linea. Le tecnologie tradizionali sono come vecchi rami mentre le nuove tecnologie sono come nuovi rami. Tuttavia, la cosa importante è che questi nuovi rami, a loro volta, cambiano l’aspetto dell’albero da cui sono nati, quindi anche l’arte dovrà cambiare per effetto di tutto ciò.” Il suono virtuale e l’immagine virtuale, di fatto, permettono all’informazione auditiva e all’informazione visiva di non essere capitalizzate o fermate in uno stato, lasciandole scorrere invece in maniera fluida, variabile e dinamica. La modifica del suono e dell’immagine accade nel nome della virtualità, della variabilità e della vitalità. Sarebbe quindi il caso di parlare piuttosto di eventi che di suoni e di immagini in senso tradizionale. Eventi che costituiscono un mondo in cui lo spettatore puo passare e entrare, uscirne e modificarlo (perché gli è con-
sentito abitarlo dall’interno), con un’elasticità che mai prima il fare dell’artista gli aveva consentito.
Sono molti (artisti, teorici e fruitori), però, coloro che restano turbati dalle potenzialità della tecnoscienza applicata all’arte per via della sua capacità di sostituire ai vecchi dispositivi di audizione e visualizzazione dei dispositivi di produzione di una realtà virtuale che non rimanda a nessun’altra dimensione che non sia quella del puro suono o della pura immagine. Tradizionalmente suoni e immagini hanno vissuto nel loro statuto di riflesso come copia dell’esistente. L’arte creata con il computer, di contro, come sostengono sia Debray che Baudrillard, non può piu’ essere considerata copia del reale perché con nell’epoca digitale la situazione si presenta esattamente rovesciata rispetto al passato: ora è il reale che deve imitare l’immagine digitale per esistere. Ragion per cui ne Il delitto perfetto Baudrillard ci racconta la storia di un delitto in cui a essere assassinata è la realtà con la conseguente fine dell’illusione causata dall’informazione mediale e dall’uso delle nuove tecnologie. Un’entità virtuale è effettivamente percepita e manipolata da un soggetto, sebbene non abbia alcuna realtà fisica corrispondente. La relazione ontologica che svalutava a partire dai Greci il nostro dialogo con le apparenze – scrive Debray – è ora capovolta. Un interrogativo che voglia stare al passo con i tempi e si situi in questa nuova concezione dell’essere dovrà dunque investigare come la creazione artistica tramite il computer – sonora con la musica elettro-acustica e elettronica, visiva con la computer graphics – possa risalire da un fatto prettamente tecnico a uno specificamente culturale.
I discorsi che più comunemente tendono a fuorviare il problema sono quelli che sostengono l’autonomia del cambiamento tecnologico dalle interazioni umane con gli oggetti tecnologici. I fattori sociali e culturali non entrerebbero dunque a far parte del disegno tecnologico con la conseguenza che gli oggetti risultanti esistono come entità inerentemente neutre. Ma non mancano istanze critiche che, al contrario, riconoscono proprio nella media-art l’espressione più avanzata della critica ai media. Come se insomma gli effetti secondari negativi delle tecnologie e dei mezzi di riproduzione fossero un prezzo necessario da pagare in vista anche di una loro possibile emancipazione. Molti artisti hanno sottolineato in questo senso e a più riprese la necessità di una pratica artistica elettronica fondata su atti di razionalizzazione sovversiva in cui le tecnologie apparentemente non artistiche sono state appropriate per le estremità creative. Tecnologie trasformate e fatte funzionare attivamente nonostante la loro origine di mezzi passivi di riproduzione, trasmissione, documentazione e intrattenimento.
Un importante contributo in questa direzione pare offerto da quei fenomeni che riguardano tanto il suono quanto l’immagine che passano sotto la definizione di Glitch e Lo-Fi. L’impulso errato o la bassa fedeltà – un CD mutilato o un collegamento audio-video che si arresta – possono infatti essere caratterizzati come un aberrazione che mette in scacco la riproduzione o la trasmissione degli strumenti della produzione tecnologica, recuperati poi attraverso un processo creativo a partire da un nuovo concetto di qualità e precisione basato sul “difetto” come estetica indeterministica (riprendendo alcune osservazioni dell’estetica adorniana ci si può riferire anche al caso guidato dalla necessità o alla tesi secondo cui “l’arte è razionalità che critica la razionalità senza sottrarlesi”). Pratiche che sollevano inoltre provocatoriamente tutta una serie di questioni circa l’esperienza mediata come riproduzione che è il modo dominante di ascoltare o di vedere oggi e che indicano la presenza di uno spostamento critico nell’arte elettronica. In questo senso il glitch e il lo-fi possono quindi diventare validi esempi di tecno-arte ma nello stesso tempo un atto di belligeranza. Feenberg parla in tal senso di “razionalizzazione sovversiva” riferendosi appunto a quell’insieme di avanzamenti tecnici fatti in opposizione a un codice tecnico dominante che ben si accorda con il fatto che proprio all’interno del processo dell’arte avanzano argomenti contrastanti rispetto al determinismo tecnologico.
La cultura immaginaria e la cultura scientifica hanno spesso coinciso in Occidente. Ogni nuovo materiale o supporto, inevitabilmente, ha sempre dato vita a un’innovazioneartisticaequestoèaccadutoancheconl’avventodelcomputer. I “nuovi suoni” e le “nuove immagini” – gli “immateriali” – continuano a offrire inebrianti possibilità ludiche, fantastiche, integrando l’astrazione all’audiovisivo. Ma l’orizzonte potrebbe anche ingannare. La forza di espansione dell’utensile simbolico – ammonisce Debray – sono anche la sua debolezza. Il pericolo starebbe nel rischio di inventare un codice senza messaggio o una sintassi senza semantica, forme asettiche. Così il fare arte riflette indubbiamente un momento di crescita interiore, di sensibilizzazione concettuale o spirituale, ma proprio in virtù della responsabilità soggettiva che va attribuito alla sua tecnologia cresce la posta in gioco. Perché, nell’immaginario dell’artista, l’opera rimane sempre un punto di arrivo, non un punto di partenza, ed è all’arrivo solo se non è alla partenza.

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