Leonello Tarabella MIT 05

LEONELLO TARABELLA SCOLPIRE IL SUONO

Nell’evoluzione e nella ricerca di nuovi linguaggi espressivi, artisti e ricercatori negli ultimi anni hanno progettato e realizzato interfacce uomo-macchina basate sulle tecnologie “touchless” dei raggi infrarossi e dell’analisi in tempo reale di immagini acquisite da telecamera. Per la loro generalità espressiva questi sistemi vengono definiti iper-strumenti. L’idea consiste nel rilevare la gestualità delle mani e più in generale del corpo umano senza alcun collegamento fisico con il sistema in modo che il corpo umano diventi l’interfaccia naturale per dare espressività a performance artistiche basate su tecnologia informatica. Nella musica della tradizione suonare uno strumento significa esercitare con una o più parti del corpo quei movimenti sulla meccanica di interfacciamento dello strumento musicale. Uno strumento tradizionale è dunque un arnese compatto che riunisce tutti gli aspetti (forma, meccanica, materiale, ergonometria, ..) necessari per stabilire precise sonorità e per controllare altezza e colore dei suoni emessi. Per alcune classi di strumenti è possibile persino personalizzare la risposta acustica attraverso la scelta di specifici parti intercambiabili dello strumento: bocchino, ancia, corde. Inoltre la struttura fisica degli strumenti riflette l’alfabeto e la sintassi della musica proposta che per noi occidentali è quella basata sul sistema temperato e riflette persino la struttura anatomica del corpo umano. In confronto, il nuovo strumento informatico musicale, appare come uno strumento esploso in più componenti: il controllore, il generatore di segnale (il computer) e le sorgenti sonore vere e proprie e cioè gli altoparlanti. Nel nuovo strumento musicale i sensori che costituiscono l’interfaccia tra il performer e il sistema stesso non vengono collegati direttamente ai generatori sonori elettronici: in mezzo c’è il computer che interpreta i segnali provenienti dai sensori ed attiva i generatori sonori in funzione di programmi opportuni; il programma attivo sul computer, legge i dati relativi ai sensori e li mappa (e cioè li trasforma) in insiemi complessi di informazioni per controllare i dispositivi di generazione sonora. Ma i programmi, in relazione ad una configurazione hardware, possono essere riscritti in ogni momento ed è perciò possibile di volta in volta dare significati sonori diversi alle azioni esercitate sui sensori. Il mapping perciò, come parte della composizione stessa. Il mapping come vera nuova frontiera compositiva ed espressiva. Ma a questo punto è possibile fare un ulteriore passo in avanti ed introdurre fra i sensori, il mapping ed il sintetizzatore, un ulteriore elemento: la gestualità. Nella performance a controllo gestuale, il sistema informatico viene opportunamente programmato per rispondere alle azioni dell’esecutore al momento della performance vera e propria. Qui, dove la situazione è molto simile a quella del concerto tradizionale e il pubblico assiste alla performance, è necessario che l’esecutore conosca a fondo le modalità di interazione col sistema e che abbia fatto il dovuto training necessario al momento dell’esecuzione in pubblico. Questo approccio all’uso del computer apre ad un territorio della composizione e dell’esecuzione dal vivo del tutto nuovo e di straordinaria vastità. Si tratta di considerare il brano musicale come il risultato di due momenti distinti: quello compositivo in cui il brano musicale viene definito in termini di veri e propri algoritmi scritti in un linguaggio di programmazione standard come il LISP o C (o altri appositamente creati), e quello esecutivo in cui il comportamento a tempo di esecuzione di tali algoritmi viene controllato dall’esterno attraverso flussi di dati provenienti da appositi apparati (i controller) in grado di tradurre azioni gestuali in apposite codifiche numeriche. Negli ultimi anni presso il computerART project del CNR di Pisa, sono state realizzati una serie di sistemi e dispositivi di riconoscimento gestuale utilizzati per la composizione e l’esecuzione di opere multimediali. Nel Pianoforte immaginario le mani di un performer vengono riprese nei movimenti tipici di un pianista che ha di fronte a sé solo una telecamera: il segnale della telecamera viene inviato ad una scheda di digitalizzazione inserita nel computer che estrae informazioni dai movimenti e posizioni delle dita delle mani utilizzate poi per sintetizzare strutture tipicamente pianistiche. Il dispositivo PalmDriver è basato su tecnologia a raggi infrarossi: si tratta di un supporto planare posto ad altezza di tavolo con degli emettitori di luce infrarossa e dei rilevatori che misurano l’altezza di un ostacolo in modo proporzionale alla quantità di luce riflessa. Se l’ostacolo è la mano, poiché i rilevatori sono molto direzionali e non interferiscono tra loro, ciascuno di essi rileva l’altezza di una porzione della mano; è così possibile rilevare altezza, angolazioni e movimenti di entrambe le mani. Le informazioni così ricavate vengono utilizzate in tempo reale per controllare algoritmi di sintesi audio di volta in volta diversi e con diversi tipi di mapping. Il dispositivo è molto sensibile al punto di punto di provocare sull’esecutore la sensazione di scolpire il suono. Verranno eseguiti 4 brani di musica utilizzando il PalmDriver ed il Pianoforte Immaginario: Serenade, All that Tech, Kite, the Piano Inside. Le performance vengono eseguite in tempo reale sulla base di materiale sonoro e programmi precedentemente preparati e lasciano spazio al controllo espressivo ed all’improvvisazione estemporanea. PalmDriver e Pianoforte Immaginario sono stati infatti ideati dall’esigenza di nuove modalità espressive artistiche ed utilizzati per la composizione e l’esecuzione di opere musicali elettroniche presentate in numerosi contesti di rilievo internazionale.

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