Alessandra Seggi MIT 06

rammenti e rifrazioni intorno all’arte, alla mente, alla musica e alla neuroestetica. Di Alessandra Seggi

Aprire una riflessione sulle diverse forme espressive, quali la musica, significa inda- gare nell’intimo dell’uomo che attraverso queste forme si è da sempre espresso nel corso della propria evoluzione. Tutte le forme artistiche sono il frutto della fantasia dell’uomo che dalla preistoria ai giorni nostri ha da sempre sentito il bisogno di esprimersi attraverso forme di comunicazione i cui codici simbolici sono realmente al di là del tempo e dello spazio fisico in cui sono stati generati.
Del resto la musica e l’arte in genere hanno da sempre prodotto un’ affascinazione ed un’emozionalità collettiva pur non necessitando di una comprensione mediata dal linguaggio. In effetti ogni modello d’arte si basa su processi fisiologici comuni e presenti in tutti gli esseri umani e coinvolgono aspetti relativi alla nostra mente ed alla nostra sfera emotiva personale e collettiva.
Questi temi sono sempre oggetto di studio e ricerca scientifica tanto che oggi con le recenti tecniche d’indagine è possibile avere una rappresentazione “dal vivo” dell’attività fisiologica del nostro cervello che esegue azioni musicali o di altra natura “artistica”
Alla luce di questi contributi si possono evidenziare gli elementi comuni tra l’individualità soggettiva ed una sorta d’universalità dell’espressione artistica. Tali convergenze si ritrovano all’interno della nostra mente, e quindi nel nostro cervello ed è studiando le relazioni tra arte e neuroscienze, pur mantenendo l’indagine centrata sull’uomo e sulla sua complessità, che si può pensare di superare di fatto la separazione cartesiana1 fra emozione e intelletto.
Se consideriamo la complessità del processo di conoscenza, esso infatti procede at- traverso un continuo modellamento degli stimoli interni ed esterni al soggetto tanto da modificare le mappe neurali attraverso una riorganizzazione delle rappresenta- zioni mentali, è possibile stabilire una relazione tempo/spazio all’interno della quale le informazioni si ristrutturano modificando le precedenti acquisizioni in modo costante e continuo.
Nel processo di apprendimento cognitivo, ad esempio, ogni input che riceviamo dall’esterno viene inserito e relazionato allo scenario mentale esistente ed ai dati in possesso del soggetto. L’input viene conseguentemente elaborato producendo un costante rimodellamento delle reti concettuali che è poi alla base della nostra capacità di apprendere sempre nel corso della nostra vita.
possibilità e ricomposizioni originali adattandosi progressivamente alle strutture musi- cali, anche quelle più inconsuete e inesplorate. Se nella musica classica le nostre abitudini percettive sono guidate da un’accultura- zione tonale che indirizza le nostre risposte emotive e guida la capacità di strutturare e memorizzare le componenti di un brano, così non accade per tutta la musica che tonale non è. Nel momento in cui la familiarità con un certo repertorio è inesistente, il soggetto percepirà nell’ascolto una sorta di disagio e tensione emotiva dato dal- l’impossibilità di riferire il materiale sonoro a strutture conosciute e precedentemente immagazzinate da un lato, e dall’altro dalla difficoltà di formulare anticipazioni per- cettive effettivamente congrue rispetto all’evento sonoro percepito.
Anche il fare musica, intesa in termini di processo mentale, si muove come un pensiero esplorativo capace di abbandonare i modi consueti di rapportare gli elementi fra loro, come accade nella musica tonale, e diventa in grado di esplorare nuove
Naturalmente si può ragionevolmente pensare che la frequentazione di nuovi linguaggi musicali conduca il nostro cervello verso forme di pensiero e di rappresenazioni sonore che non potremmo attivarsi rimanendo all’interno delle nostre cornici auditive e musicali in genere.
Gli studi di psicologia musicale hanno analizzato da tempo il processo di strutturazione mentale della musica. In particolare M. Imberty2 ha definito gli “schemi di relaione d’ordine” intendendo con questi tutte “le relazioni organiche che permettono di stabilire dei rapporti fra le parti dell’opera, fra elementi vicini o ripetuti a distanza. Questi schemi costituiscono il presente psicologico della percezione all’interno del quale il tempo si immobilizza, diventa uno “spazio mentale” dove le operazioni com- plesse e astratte possono essere effettuate indipendentemente dalla durata temporale”.
Da questa prospettiva si visualizza la percezione temporale come parte di qualunque esperienza sonora: infatti proprio lo scorrere del tempo permette all’ascoltatore di produrre continue anticipazioni e retroazioni nella memoria sintonizzandosi in tempo reale ai cambiamenti sonori in atto.
Questo andirivieni costante di configurazioni mentali collegate logicamente fra loro si muove come un flusso continuo in tutte le direzioni e avanti e indietro nel tempo, e, proprio come accade nella realtà virtuale, i diversi elementi si scompongono e ricompongono in una modularità illimitata.
Lo sviluppo tecnologico ha favorito la nascita di nuovi modi di comunicare non solo estremamente rapidi ma anche sempre meno legati alla presenza fisica della per- sona. Tutto ciò influenza il nostro modo di comunicare ed anche il modo di rappresentarci e di vivere identità interscambiabili legate ai diversi ambienti in cui queste identità si formano.
Nella società contemporanea l’individuo vive la costruzione della propria identità attraverso il dialogo continuo con sé stesso e con gli altri: un dialogo dilatato dalla comunicazione mediata che permette un raccontarsi multimediale e mutevole per divenire, telefonino, chat, forum, sms. In questa cornice tutti i formati di comunicazione si mescolano fra loro dando vita a nuovi scenari comunicativi ogni volta diversi. In questo senso la mediazione tecnologica ci rimanda un sé frammentato fra molteplici forme di dialogo e ricostruibile in combinazioni infinite3.
L’attuale sfasatura prodotta dalla tecnologia nella relazione classica tempo/spazio non è distante dalla dimensione sospesa dei codici simbolici universali attraverso i quali l’arte e la musica si esprime e si è espressa nei secoli. Se si considerano la percezione, intesa come processo d’acquisizione dell’informazione dall’esterno attraverso i sensi in una logica di controllo d’ipotesi, e la memoria, come un sistema di conservazione dell’informazione capace di ricostruire e rappresentarsi mentalmente il percepito anche sul piano cinetico-emozionale, possiamo considerare entrambi i processi quali funzioni primarie che sottendono l’atto crea- tivo.
In questo senso le basi fisiologiche di percezione e memoria possono essere il punto di partenza per lo studio delle relazioni esistenti tra neuroscienze e arte. Se ci chiediamo: cosa accade in noi quando facciamo esperienza dell’arte? Una risposta potremmo trovarla nella Neuroestetica, settore relativamente nuovo derivante dalle neuroscienze che si pone l’obiettivo di esplorare l’attività cerebrale alla base della creatività e del godimento dell’arte.
La sua premessa fondamentale consiste nello studio delle basi neuronali della creatività e dell’esperienza artistica oggi possibili grazie ai progressi compiuti dalle neuro- scienze negli ultimi anni. Le ricerche realizzate sul “sistema dei neuroni specchio”4 negli esseri umani han- no fornito alla neuroestetica una base neurofisiologica molto importante. Grazie a questo sistema si produce una medesima risposta neuronale sia che un’azione sia eseguita in proprio, sia che la stessa azione venga compiuta da altri. Così quando osserviamo un’azione si attivano i medesimi circuiti neuronali che si attiverebbero se fossimo noi stessi a compierla. Anche i fondamenti dell’esperienza intersoggettiva sembrano poggiare su questo sistema: comprendiamo gli altri e riusciamo a stabilire una interazione comunicativa perché quando vediamo altri agire un gruppo dei nostri neuroni si attiva come se fossimo noi a compiere quelle azioni.
Applicato alla Neuroestetica questo principio ci vedrebbe capaci di comprendere le situazioni che l’arte ci presenta poiché i nostri neuroni specchio, alla vista di azioni
rappresentate nelle opere d’arte, si attivano come se fossimo noi stessi ad eseguirle. Questo circuito del “come-se”5 fa si che il corpo percepisca gli effetti di un cambia- mento anche se questo non è accaduto e ciò pare essere la base neuropsicologica della capacità di comprendere le azioni altrui ciò che si definisce come empatia. Da questa panoramica del sentire e vivere l’esperienza dell’arte nell’inscindibilità fra corpo e mente, pensiero ed emozione, si evince un’idea di complessità che si esplicita in una componente flessibile del nostro modo di conoscere, sentire e trasformare sia il vissuto che i nostri modelli mentali.
L’auspicio è che le nuove frontiere di studio e di ricerca della neurestetica possano fornire risposte alle tante domande sulla fruizione e la produzione dell’arte restituendoci un nuovo modo di leggere l’affascinazione artistica visiva ed, auguriamoci, an- che musicale.

Riferimenti bibliografici: 1 A.R. Damasio, L’errore di Cartesio,1995 adelphi Ed. Milano; 2 M. Imberty, 2004, L’organizzazione percettiva del tempo musicale, in Capire la For- ma, a cura di R. Deriu, EDT, Torino; 3 A.V. Identità dialogiche nell’era digitale, a cura di M.B. Ligorio, H. Hermans, Erickson Trento, 2005; 4 A.R.Damasio, Emozione e coscienza, 2000 Adelphi Ed. Milano; Sitografia: www.neuroscienze.net, www.neuroestetica.org
Alessandra Seggi, Educational Technologist e docente di Pedagogia della Musica presso il Conservatorio di Musica di Cagliari

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