Alessandra seggi MIT 05

ALESSANDRA SEGGI
LA MUSICA COMPLESSA RIFLESSIONI INTORNO ALLA MENTE, AL CORPO, ALLA MUSICA ED ALLA TECNOLOGIA

Music in Touch costituisce l’occasione per iniziare una riflessione generale sulle idee prodotte dalle nuove ricerche in ambito scientifico e musicale. Spesso questi due settori, fino ad un po’ di anni fa, non entravano neppure in relazione se non tramite l’utilizzo di tecnologie d’uso comune e comunque mantenendo ben distinte le reciproche peculiarità e spazi d’azione. Nel retaggio tardo romantico di una concezione in cui artisti si nasce e non si diventa, e nell’indifferenza istituzionale di mezzo secolo, la musica ha per lungo tempo vissuto la prerogativa di arte assoluta e quindi irrazionale ed istintiva. Il talento è da sempre stato il metro con il quale misurare empiricamente le potenzialità di chiunque intendeva avvicinarsi agli studi musicali classici con buona pace di tutte le ricerche psicopedagogiche e didattiche. La musica, nel nostro paese, è stata patrimonio di pochissimi privilegiati dotati di predisposizione e genialità del tutto imprescrutabili quanto non ascrivibili entro confini oggettivi e verificabili. Anche la pratica strumentale ha trovato la sua collocazione ideale in una sorta di esercizio motorio specchio di un’idea di conoscenza assoluta e certa quanto meccanica e molto spesso automatizzata ed inconsapevole. Oggi, a differenza di ieri, gli studi di fisiologia e neuroscienze unitamente alle tecniche di brain imagining sullo specifico versante sonoro, hanno chiarito cosa accade nel cervello quando ascoltiamo o eseguiamo musica, quali sono le regioni cerebrali che elaborano tali informazioni e come concretamente lo fanno. Alla luce di tutto questo è necessario includere anche nelle riflessioni pedagogiche temi comlpessi come lo studio delle funzioni cerebrali e dei processi mentali, esaminando a fondo gli apporti che le ricerche odierne hanno dato alla comprensione dei processi di apprendimento e di insegnamento della musica. Gli approfondimenti in ambito biologico e neuroscientifico hanno contribuito a fare chiarezza sia sul piano anatomico fisiologico–cognitivo, che su quello motorio affettivo ed emozionale. In questa nuova prospettiva è ora indispensabile ampliare gli orizzonti della riflessione sconfinando in ambiti che esulano dalla specificità squisitamente tecnicistica musicale individuando possibili percorsi trasversali, stabilendo relazioni articolate e non univoche tra i diversi saperi e conoscenze. Questi ultimi dieci anni, definiti gli anni del cervello, in considerazione del notevole sviluppo delle ricerche nel settore, hanno fornito informazioni sempre più precise circa i meccanismi fisiologici su cui si basano i processi mentali indicando il legame esistente ed inseparabile tra vita corporea e vita psichica. Ma quale connessione esiste tra la musica e gli studi di neuroscienze? Partendo dal presupposto che cervello umano e corpo costituiscono un tutto integrato e che anche l’organismo si relaziona ed interagisce con l’ambiente nel suo insieme, si è potuto dimostrare che “ […] i processi fisiologici che noi chiamiamo “mente” derivano dall’insieme strutturale e funzionale, piuttosto che da solo cervello: soltanto nel contesto dell’interagire di un organismo con l’ambiente si possono comprendere appieno i fenomeni mentali.”1 In questo senso l’attività dei neuroni non è indipendente da quella del resto dell’organismo e ciò chiarisce come le radici della mente umana si trovino in un corpo umano complesso ed in continuo mutamento. Del resto anche i nostri concetti sono flessibili e variabili in funzione del nostro corpo e dell’ambiente in cui ci troviamo ad interagire. Per completare l’intero quadro è necessario richiamare l’attenzione sugli aspetti emotivi in quanto parti integranti di tutti i processi razionali di ragionamento. “Le indicazioni neurologiche suggeriscono semplicemente che l’assenza selettiva di emozioni è un problema. Le emozioni ben dirette e ben dispiegate paiono essere un sistema di appoggio senza il quale l’intero edificio della ragione non può operare a dovere.”2 L’emozioni, i sentimenti sono aspetti integranti e concreti del nostro fare e ascoltare musica, sia dal punto di vista cognitivo che neurale tanto che parlare di reti di connessioni tra mente, corpo ed emozione vuol dire considerare tre aspetti di un’unica funzione che si manifesta concretamente nell’interazione del soggetto con l’ambiente che lo circonda. Anche negli studi di psicologia della musica si è potuto verificare che la complessità dell’espressione musicale si esprime non solo in termini di pensieri astratti ma anche in termini di flusso motorio e fisicità concreta. Da questa panoramica globale del sentire e vivere l’inscindibilità di corpo e mente si evince un’idea di complessità che si esplicita in una componente flessibile del nostro modo di conoscere, sentire e trasformare sia il vissuto che le stesse mappe cognitive. Naturalmente tutto ciò sarà possibile per l’individuo che, in base al proprio livello di expertise, possiederà e sarà in grado di utilizzare strumenti indispensabili per attivare strategie adattive sulle caratteristiche strutturali degli stimoli sonori in ingresso. Infatti da studi compiuti intorno agli anni settanta si è stabilito che le reazioni di gradimento o di rifiuto di stimoli sonori dipendono da meccanismi neurofisiologici congiunti al controllo della vigilanza e dell’attività reticolare. Ciò avvalora pertanto l’idea della formazione di un soggetto capace di un’elaborazione cognitiva d’ informazioni musicali complesse trasformando la discrepanza prodotta dagli stimoli in processi di riequilibramento fluido e costante. La molteplicità del resto fa parte integrante dell’espressione musicale dove coesistono libertà e regola. Il pensiero di chi fa e/o ascolta musica si proietta nell’esplorazione di nuovi modi di rapportare elementi fra loro aprendosi costantemente a nuove possibilità e ricomposizioni originali. In questo senso la musica si può considerare come una forma di pensiero articolato in sistemi aperti che comunicano attraverso un linguaggio di natura polisemico.
La flessibilità è una peculiarità indispensabile del pensiero sonoro perché diventa lo strumento necessario per seguire un cammino interpretativo, sia come ascoltatore che come esecutore, capace di mutare e trasformarsi senza esaurirsi. La mente, per analizzare un brano prenderà in considerazione molteplici aspetti contemporaneamente tracciando percorsi multidimensionali e sovrapposti nello spazio nel tempo. Tutti gli oggetti d’arte, visivi ,sonori, e di altra natura proprio per la loro stratificazione di sensi si prestano ad una pluralità d’interpretazioni ed in questo senso […]” l’arte si trasforma incorporando gli schemi, e i significati di un mondo culturale esso pure in continua evoluzione. La storia culturale si integra così al funzionamento del cervello.”3 Se spostiamo la riflessione sulla condizione umana del nostro tempo scopriamo la complessità degli stessi oggetti di studio, quali la mente, la tecnologia, la società, la cultura che inevitabilmente necessitano di più approcci e osservazioni eterogenee e non coordinate preventivamente. Inevitabilmente anche i confini tra discipline diverse si sfumano ed i saperi si sovrappongono in una fluidità di pensieri che si trasformano costantemente seguendo l’accelerazione del nostro tempo e l’imprevedibilità delle loro relazioni. L’individuo ha perciò sempre più bisogno non solo di mappe cognitive ampie e duttili ma anche di strumenti per aumentare il proprio potenziale di analisi e discriminazione per poterle ristrutturare ed insieme incrementare al nuovo in un atteggiamento aperto alla scoperta. Anche gli sviluppi tecnologici aggiungono nuove logiche, nuovi materiali che se da un lato aumentano le tensioni dall’altro aprono nuove prospettive per chi conosce e sa leggerne i codici superando il primo livello di fascinazione epidermica e dilettantesca. In questo quadro dove il molteplice,il divenire e la flessibilità sono protagonisti assoluti del nostro tempo l’individuo può incrementare la propria capacità elaborativa di oggi sostituendola alla sicurezza di ieri così come la tecnologia può incontrare la musica aprendo nuovi canali d’interazione in nome della rinnovata capacità di espansione dei propri confini e di costruzione di saperi sempre più integrati ed innovativi.

Note
1 a.r. damasio, descartes’ error, emotion,reason, and the human brain, 1994, l’errore di cartesio,1995 adelphi ed. milano, pg.24.
2 a.r.damasio,the feeling of what happens, body and emotion in the making of consciousness, 1999. emozione e coscienza, 2000 adelphi ed. milano, pg.59.
3 j.-p. changeux, rasoin et plasir, paris 1994, ragione e piacere, ed. raffaello cortina, milano 1995, pg 104,105.
Alessandra Seggi, Educational Technologist e docente di Pedagogia della Musica presso il Conservatorio Statale di Musica di Cagliari

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